Alcázar of Seville

Page semi-protected
From FAMEPedia, The free encyclopedia
Alcázar of Seville
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Sevilla-2-2 (48040287512).jpg
Patio de la Montería courtyard
LocationSeville, Spain
Part ofCathedral, Alcázar and General Archive of the Indies in Seville
CriteriaCultural: i, ii, iii, vi
Reference383-002
Inscription1987 (11th session)
Coordinates37°23′02″N 5°59′29″W / 37.38389°N 5.99139°W / 37.38389; -5.99139
Alcázar of Seville is located in Spain
Alcázar of Seville
Location of Alcázar of Seville in Spain

The Royal Alcázars of Seville (Spanish: Reales Alcázares de Sevilla), historically known as al-Qasr al-Muriq (Arabic: القصر المُورِق, The Verdant Palace)[1][2] and commonly known as the Alcázar of Seville (pronounced [alˈkaθaɾ]), is a royal palace in Seville, Spain, built for the Christian king Peter of Castile.[3] It was built by Castilian Christians on the site of an Abbadid Muslim alcazar, or residential fortress.[4][5] The fortress was destroyed after the Christian conquest of Seville.[6] The palace is a preeminent example of Mudéjar architecture in the Iberian Peninsula but features Gothic, Renaissance and Romanesque design elements from previous stages of construction. The upper storeys of the Alcázar are still occupied by the royal family when they are in Seville, and are administered by the Patrimonio Nacional. It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, along with the adjoining Seville Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies.[7]

Etymology

The term Alcázar comes from the Arabic al-qaṣr, ("the castle" or "the palace", اَلْقَصْر), itself derived from the Latin castrum ("castle").[8][9][10][11]

History

Photo of 1895 of the Cámara de Audiencias
Patio del Yeso is the most significant of the Almohad Moorish remains. The image is of its south portico.
Plan of the Alcázar of Seville
  • 1-Puerta del León
  • 2-Sala de la Justicia y patio del Yeso (cyan)
  • 3-Patio de la Montería (pink)
  • 4-Cuarto del Almirante y Casa de Contratación (cream)
  • 5-Palacio mudéjar o de Pedro I (red)
  • 6-Palacio gótico (blue)
  • 7-Estanque de Mercurio
  • 8-Jardines (green)
  • 9-Apeadero (yellow)
  • 10-Patio de Banderas
The Real Alcázar is situated near the Seville Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies in one of Andalusia's most emblematic areas.[12] In the year 712, Seville was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate. In the year 913, after a revolt against Cordoba’s government, the first caliph of Andalusia Abd al-Rahman III built a fortified construction in place of a Visigothic Christian basilica.[13] It was a quadrangular enclosure, fortified, and annexed to the walls.[12] In the 11th century, the second king, Al-Mu'tamid, expanded the structure to the west with a new palace ‘Al Mubarak’. Various additions to the construction such as stables and warehouses were also carried out. As Seville was established as the capital of Al-Andalus, the Almohade caliphs made the Alcazar their main residence.[13] With the exception of the walls, the previous buildings were demolished, and a total of approximately twelve palaces were built.[12] There are few remnants of construction from that period. Archaeological remains of the Al Mubarak palace are currently preserved under Patio de la Monteria. Several wall painting fragments were found that are now exhibited in the Palacio del Yeso.[13]

With the start of the Christian era in Seville, the Alcazar was converted into the residence of the Christian monarchs. Changes were made to the buildings to fit the needs of the monarchs and the court life. In the years 1364–1366, king Pedro I built the Mudéjar Palace, an example of the Andalusian Mudejar style. Under the Catholic rulers Isabella and Fernando, the upperfloor was extended and transformed into the main residence of the monarchs.[13]

The palace was the birthplace of Infanta Maria Antonietta of Spain (1729–1785), daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, when the king was in the city to oversee the signing of the Treaty of Seville (1729) which ended the Anglo-Spanish War (1727).[12]

The palace

During the five hundred years of construction, various architectural styles succeeded one another. There are no remnants of the initial design, but the structure was probably refurbished with elements of Islamic ornamentation and patterns. Several major gardens were also built. With the start of the Spanish Reconquista in the 13th century, the palace was remodeled with Gothic and Romanesque elements. The 16th century saw major additions built in Renaissance style. Alongside these designs, Islamic decoration and ornamentation was widely used. After damage by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, that façade of the Palacio Gótico overlooking the Patio del Crucero was completely renovated using Baroque elements. The palace now presents a unique blend of styles.[14]

Tiles

The palace is known for its tile decoration. The two tile types used are majolica and arista tiles. In the arista technique, the green body is stamped and each tile segment has raised ridges. This technique produces tiles with transparent glazes that are not flat. The art of majolica ceramics was developed later in the 15th–16th centuries. The innovation made it possible to "paint" directly on ceramics covered with white opaque glazes. Being a trade center, Seville had access to large scale production of these tiles. They were mainly of geometric design inspired by arabesque ornamentation.

In the 16th century, the Catholic Monarchs commissioned Nicola Pisano to make two majolica tile altarpieces in the palace. One still exists in the oratory of the royal apartments, the other one is missing. Later, the artist Cristóbal de Augusta created a tile-work in the Palacio Gotico. It features animals, cherubs and floral designs and gives the palace a bright tapestry look.[15]
Puerta del León (Gate of the Lion)

Puerta del León

The main entrance to the Alcázar takes its name from the 19th century tile-work inlaid above it, a crowned lion holding a cross in its claws and bearing a Gothic script.

Patio de las Doncellas

Patio de las Doncellas courtyard
One of the access-gates (b. 14th century) to Salón de los Embajadores in Palace of Peter of Castile
The name, meaning "The Courtyard of the Maidens", is a reference to the apocryphal story that the Moors demanded an annual tribute of 100 virgins from the Christian kingdoms of Iberia.

The lower storey of the Patio was built for King Peter of Castile and contains inscriptions that refer to Peter as a "sultan". Several reception rooms are arranged around a long rectangular reflecting pool in the center with sunken gardens on either side. For many years, the courtyard was entirely paved in marble with a fountain in the center. However, historical evidence showed the gardens and the reflecting pool were the original design and this arrangement was restored. Soon after this restoration, the courtyard was temporarily paved with marble once again at the request of movie director Ridley Scott. Scott used the paved courtyard as the set for the court of the King of Jerusalem in his movie Kingdom of Heaven. The courtyard arrangement was converted once more after the movie's production.

The upper story of the Patio was an addition made by Charles V. The addition was designed by Luis de Vega in the style of the Italian Renaissance although he did include both Renaissance and mudéjar plaster work in the decorations. Construction of the addition began in 1540 and ended in 1572.

Los Baños de Doña María de Padilla

The "Baths of Lady María de Padilla" are rainwater tanks beneath the Patio del Crucero. The tanks are named after María de Padilla, the mistress of Peter the Cruel.

Salon de Embajadores

The Hall of Ambassadors (ceiling)
The Ambassadors Hall is the ancient throne room built during the reign of Al-Mu'tamid in the 11th century. In the 14th century, Pedro I of Castile remodeled the hall to make it a centerpiece of his royal palace. Plant motifs in plasterwork were added in the corners of the room and spandrels of the arches. Windows were traced with geometric elements. Walls were covered with tiled panels. The orientation of the hall was also changed from facing Mecca to northeast. The doorway now led to the Patio of the Maidens (Patio de las Doncellas).[16] In 1526, Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal celebrated their marriage in this room.[17]

Other sections

Cuarto del Príncipe
Sala de las Bóvedas in Gothic Palace. the Gothic Palace was made between 1254–1578.
  • Patio de las Muñecas (Courtyard of the Dolls)
  • Patio de la Montería (Courtyard of the Montería)
  • Dormitorio de los Reyes Moros (Bedroom of the Moorish Kings)
  • Sala de Justicia (Justice room)
  • Patio del Yeso (Courtyard of the Plaster)
  • Cuarto del Almirante (Admiral's Room)
  • Casa de Contratación (Casa de Contratación)
  • Patio del Crucero (Courtyard of the Crossing)
  • Palacio Mudéjar or de Pedro I (Mudéjar Palace or that of Peter of Castile)
    • Patio de las Muñecas (Courtyard of the Dolls)
    • Cuarto del Príncipe (Prince's Room)
    • Patio de las Doncellas (Courtyard of the Maidens)
    • Salón del Techo de Carlos V (Charles V Ceiling Room)
    • Salón de Embajadores (Ambassadors' Room)
    • Salón del Techo de Felipe II (Philip II Ceiling Room)
    • Primera planta (First level of the Palace of Peter of Castile)
  • Palacio Gótico (Gothic Palace)
    • Capilla (Chapel)
    • Gran Salón (Big Room)
    • Salón de los Tapices (Tapestries' Room)
    • Sala de las Bóvedas (Vaults' Room)
  • Upper floors belong to the Patrimonio Nacional and are occupied by the royal family when visiting Seville. There are many security measures for visitors; admission is approximately 5 euros.
    • Vestíbulo or Saleta de la Reina Isabel la Católica (Lobby or Queen Isabella the Catholic Monarch's Room)
    • Anteortaorio de Isabel la Católica (Pre-oratory of Isabella the Catholic Monarch)
    • Oratorio de Isabel la Católica (Oratory of Isabella the Catholic Monarch)
    • Alcoba Real (Royal Bedroom)
    • Antecomedor (Pre-dining Room)
    • Comedor de Gala (Gala Dining)
    • Sala de fumar (Smoking Room)
    • Retrete del Rey (King's Toilet)
    • Antecomedor de familia, antiguo Cuarto del Rey (Family Pre-dining Room, former King's Room)
    • Comedor de Familia or Cuarto Nuevo (Family Dining Room or New Room)
    • Mirador de los Reyes Católicos (Viewpoint of the Catholic Monarchs)
    • Dormitorio del Rey Don Pedro, antiguo Cuarto de los Lagartos (King Don Peter of Castile's Bedroom, former Lizards' Room)
    • Despacho de Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos I's Office)
    • Cámara de Audiencias (Hearings' Chamber)
    • Dormitorio de Isabel II (Isabella II's Bedroom)
    • Colección Carranza (a museum of old azulejos)
  • Gardens
    • Estanque de Mercurio (Mercury Pond)
    • Galería de Grutesco (Grotesque Gallery)
    • Jardín de la Danza (Dance's Garden)
    • Jardín de Troya (Troy's Garden)
    • Jardín de la Galera (The Galley's Garden)
    • Jardín de las Flores (Flowers' Garden)
    • Jardín del Príncipe (Prince's Garden)
    • Jardín de las Damas (Ladies' Garden)
    • Pabellón de Carlos V (Charles V's Pavilion)
    • Cenador del León (Lion's Gloriette)
    • Jardín Inglés (English Garden)
    • Jardín del Marqués de la Vega-Inclán (Marquis of la Vega-Inclán's Garden)
    • Jardín de los Poetas (The Poets' Garden)
  • Apeadero (Mounting-block)
    • Patio de Banderas (Flags' Courtyard)
  • Walls of the Alcázar

The gardens

All the palaces of Al Andalus had garden orchards with fruit trees, horticultural produce and a wide variety of fragrant flowers. The garden-orchards not only supplied food for the palace residents but had the aesthetic function of bringing pleasure. Water was ever present in the form of irrigation channels, runnels, jets, ponds and pools.

The gardens adjoining the Alcázar of Seville have undergone many changes. In the 17th century during the reign of Philip III the Italian designer Vermondo Resta introduced the Italian Mannerist style. Resta was responsible for the Galeria de Grutesco (Grotto Gallery) transforming the old Muslim wall into a loggia from which to admire the view of the palace gardens.

In popular culture

  • In 1962 the Alcázar was used as a set for Lawrence of Arabia.[18]
  • The Patio de las Doncellas was used as the set for the court of the King of Jerusalem in the 2005 movie Kingdom of Heaven.
  • Part of the fifth season of Game of Thrones was shot in several locations in the province of Seville, including the Alcázar.[19]

References

  1. Team, Almaany. "Translation and Meaning of مورق In English, English Arabic Dictionary of terms Page 1". www.almaany.com. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  2. "مدينة إشبيلية الإسبانية". موضوع (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  3. Joseph F. O'Callaghan (15 April 2013). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. p. 692. ISBN 978-0-8014-6871-1.
  4. Frederick Alfred De Armas (1996). Heavenly Bodies: The Realms of La Estrella de Sevilla. Bucknell University Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-8387-5308-8.
  5. Titus Burckhardt (1997). Moorish Culture in Spain. Suhail Academy. p. 104.
  6. Antonio Urquízar-Herrera (11 May 2017). Admiration and Awe: Morisco Buildings and Identity Negotiations in Early Modern Spanish Historiography. Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-19-879745-6.
  7. "Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville". UNESCO. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
  8. The Islamic Review. Woking Muslim Mission and Literary Trust. 1960. p. 2.
  9. T.W. Haig (1993). Houtsma MT, Wensinck AJ, Arnold TW, Heffening W, Lévi-Provençal É (eds.). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Vol. IV (Reprint of 1913 ed.). BRILL. p. 802. ISBN 90-04-09790-2.
  10. Muḥammad ibn ʻUmar Ibn al-Qūṭīyah; David James (2009). Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn Al-Qūṭīya : a Study of the Unique Arabic Manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, with a Translation, Notes, and Comments. Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-415-47552-5.
  11. Jonathan Bloom; Sheila Blair (14 May 2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. OUP USA. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Miguel Ángel Tabales Rodríguez (2001), "La transformación palatina del Alcázar de Sevilla, 914–1366" (PDF), Anales de Arqueología Cordobesa, no. 12, pp. 195–213ISSN 1130-9741
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Robador, M. D., De Viguerie, L., Pérez‐Rodríguez, J. L., Rousselière, H., Walter, P., and Castaing, J. (2016), "The Structure and Chemical Composition of Wall Paintings From Islamic and Christian Times in the Seville Alcazar.", Archaeometry, 58 (58): 255–270, doi:10.1111/arcm.12218{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. Ruggles, D. Fairchild (2004), "The Alcazar of Seville and Mudejar Architecture", Gesta, vol. 43, University of Chicago Press, International Center of Medieval Art, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 87–98, JSTOR 25067097
  15. de Viguerie, L, Robador, MD, Castaing, J, Perez‐Rodriguez, JL, Walter, P, Bouquillon, A (2019), "Technological evolution of ceramic glazes in the renaissance: In situ analysis of tiles in the Alcazar (Seville, Spain)" (PDF), J Am Ceram Soc., no. 102, pp. 1402–1413{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. Blasco-Lopez, F. J., Alejandre, F. J., Flores-Ales, V., & Cortes, I. (2016), "Plasterwork in the Ambassadors Hall (Salon de Embajadores) of the Real / Alcazar of Seville (Spain): Graphic reconstruction of polychrome work by layer characterization" (PDF), Construction and Building Materials, no. 107{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. Giordano, Carlos; Palmisano, Nicolás; Caruncho, Daniel R. (2016). Real Alcázar de Sevilla : más de mil años de arte y arquitectura. Barcelona: Dos de Arte Ediciones. ISBN 9788491030423. OCLC 946119342.
  18. Internet, Unidad Editorial. "El día que Lawrence de Arabia cambió el desierto por Sevilla". www.elmundo.es. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  19. Mencos, Ana (31 August 2017). "¿Qué se ha visto de Sevilla en "Juego de Tronos"?". ABC (in Spanish). Vocento. Retrieved 14 October 2019.

External links

Description

This metadata template links Wikipedia articles to various library (and other) catalogue systems, for biographies and other topics.

This template draws most of its values from Wikidata, but they can be overridden by locally entered data. Adding the data to Wikidata is preferable.

If there is no information in Wikidata for the specific subject, an empty instance of this template will be dormant, meaning it will be invisible on the rendered page. Thus, using this template on a page with no authority information is harmless.

An empty instance of this template stays dormant in an article, until values are added to Wikidata, when it will then display them, so this template should be added to all biographies, whether or not there are authority control identifiers in Wikidata already.

User pages

The template may also be placed on user pages, but then data must be entered locally.

Data types

Wikidata content is used as fallback for all identifiers.

The template validates digits for all values and shows an error if the check fails.

Wherever possible, the template also generates a link to WorldCat Identities, using VIAF or LCCN values, or manually via |WORLDCATID=.

Position

As a metadata template, the Authority control template should be placed after the external links section and navigation templates, right before the categories.

Usage

As a general guideline:

1: insert the empty version,
2: click "Show preview" to see which sources are automatically pulled from Wikidata,
3a: if you know of more sources, add them in the template using their named parameter,
3b: alternatively, consider adding those sources to the article's "Wikidata item", so that all versions of Wikipedia will automatically benefit.

In addition to the mixed-case parameter names listed on this page, the template also supports all-lowercase alias names of all parameters (except for deprecated ones).


Examples

Victor Hugo:

{{Authority control |VIAF=9847974 |LCCN=n/79/091479 |ISNI=0000 0001 2120 0982 |GND=118554654 |SELIBR=206651 |SUDOC=026927608 |BNF=cb11907966z |BIBSYS=90054094 |ULAN=500032572 |HDS=011461 |MBA=c0c99c8f-4779-4c35-9497-67d60a73310a |NLA=35212404 |NDL=00443985 |NKC=jn19990003739 |Léonore=LH//1320/26 |ICCU=IT\ICCU\CFIV\000163 |RSL=000081185 |BNE=XX874892 |CINII=DA00460099 |RKDartists=40381}}

Template loop detected: Template:Authority control

Alexander Graham Bell:

{{Authority control |VIAF=59263727 |LCCN=n/79/113947 |ISNI=0000 0000 8138 6064 |GND=119408643 |SUDOC=066924146 |BNF=13746617f |MBA=9dd93d09-24b4-41f1-a48b-ef48b07499c3 |NDL=00620343}}

Template loop detected: Template:Authority control

Harry Forbes Witherby:

{{Authority control |VIAF=66861474 |LCCN=n/87/142671 |ISNI=0000 0001 0911 2808 |GND=117421863 |SUDOC=090162897}}

Template loop detected: Template:Authority control

Rendering

The template is split into seven sections: "General", "National libraries", "Art galleries and museums", "Art research institutes", "Biographical dictionaries", "Scientific databases", and "Other". If all identifiers are in the same section, |state= is ignored, and the template displays on one line: Template loop detected: Template:Authority control Otherwise, the template displays as a navbox with a header: Template loop detected: Template:Authority control

Initial visibility: currently defaults to autocollapse

To set this template's initial visibility, the |state= parameter may be used:

  • |state=collapsed: {{Alcázar of Seville|state=collapsed}} to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar
  • |state=expanded: {{Alcázar of Seville|state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible
  • |state=autocollapse: {{Alcázar of Seville|state=autocollapse}}
    • shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}, a {{sidebar}}, or some other table on the page with the collapsible attribute
    • shows the template in its expanded state if there are no other collapsible items on the page

If the |state= parameter in the template on this page is not set, the template's initial visibility is taken from the |default= parameter in the Collapsible option template. For the template on this page, that currently evaluates to autocollapse.

Wikidata and tracking categories

The template can get its information from the following properties on Wikidata:

Lua error: too many expensive function calls.

Additional tracking categories

This template may add the following categories:

Error reports

See the monthly parameter usage report for this template.

Microformat

The template wraps each UID value with the HTML markup: <span class="uid">...</span>, which enables the first-found value to be included in an hCard microformat.

See also

TemplateData

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly parameter usage report for this template.

TemplateData for Alcázar of Seville

A template to link Wikipedia articles to various library catalogue systems

Template parameters

ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
VIAFVIAF viaf

International authority data from the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC).

Default
Wikidata property P214
Numberoptional
LCCNLCCN lccn

Library of Congress Control Number. See [[Wikipedia:Authority control#LCCN]] for formatting instructions.

Default
Wikidata property P244
Stringoptional
ISNIISNI isni

International Standard Name Identifier is a method for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, TV programmes, and newspaper articles.

Default
Wikidata property P213
Stringoptional
ORCIDORCID orcid

Authority data on researchers, academics, etc. The ID range has been defined as a subset of the forthcoming ISNI range.

Default
Wikidata property P496
Stringoptional
GNDGND gnd GKD PND SWD

Authority data on people, corporations and subjects from the German National Library.

Default
Wikidata property P227
Stringoptional
SELIBRSELIBR selibr

Authority data from the National Library of Sweden.

Default
Wikidata property P906
Stringoptional
SUDOCSUDOC sudoc

Authority data of people listed in the general catalogue of the University Documentation System of France.

Default
Wikidata property P269
Stringoptional
BNFBNF bnf

Authority data of people listed in the general catalogue of the National Library of France.

Default
Wikidata property P268
Stringoptional
BPNBPN bpn

Dutch project with material for 40,000 digitized biographies, including former colonies of the Netherlands.

Default
Wikidata property P651
Numberoptional
RIDRID rid

An identifying system for scientific authors. The system was introduced in January 2008 by Thomson Reuters. The combined use of the Digital Object Identifier with the ResearcherID allows for a unique association of authors and scientific articles.

Default
Wikidata property P1053
Stringoptional
BIBSYSBIBSYS bibsys

BIBSYS is a supplier of library and information systems for all Norwegian university Libraries, the National Library of Norway, college libraries, and a number of research libraries and institutions.

Default
Wikidata property P1015
Stringoptional
ULANULAN ulan

ULAN is an online database using a controlled vocabulary currently containing around 293,000 names and other information about artists.

Default
Wikidata property P245
Stringoptional
HDSHDS hds

Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland.

Default
Wikidata property P902
Numberoptional
LIRLIR lir

Historical Dictionary of Switzerland: Lexicon Istoric Retic (LIR) is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.

Default
Wikidata property P886
Numberoptional
MBAMBA mba

MusicBrainz is an open music encyclopedia that collects music metadata and makes it available to the public.

Default
Wikidata property P434
Stringoptional
MGPMGP mgp

Mathematics Genealogy Project is a web-based database for the academic genealogy of mathematicians.

Default
Wikidata property P549
Numberoptional
NLANLA nla

Authority control number issued by the National Library of Australia.

Default
Wikidata property P409
Stringoptional
NDLNDL ndl

Authority control number issued by the National Diet Library (National Library of Japan).

Default
Wikidata property P349
Numberoptional
NCLNCL ncl

National Central Library is the national library of Taiwan, Republic of China.

Default
Wikidata property P1048
Numberoptional
NKCNKC nkc

National Library of the Czech Republic (Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic.

Default
Wikidata property P691
Stringoptional
LéonoreLéonore léonore

Léonore database (Base Léonore) is a French database that lists the records of the members of the National Order of the Legion of Honor.

Default
Wikidata property P640
Stringoptional
ICCUICCU iccu

Central Institute for the Union Catalogue (ICCU: Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico) is an Italian government agency created to build a single catalog of all the libraries in the nation. It manages National Library Service (SBN: Servizio bibliotecario nazionale).

Default
Wikidata property P396
Stringoptional
RSLRSL rsl

Russian State Library (Российская государственная библиотека) is the national library of Russia.

Default
Wikidata property P947
Numberoptional
BotanistBotanist botanist

Author citation (botany): standard form (official abbreviation) of a personal name for use in an author citation (only for names of algae, fungi and plants). Links to page at International Plant Names Index (IPNI).

Default
Wikidata property P428
Stringoptional
NARANARA nara NARA-person NARA-organization

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records.

Default
Wikidata property P1225
Numberoptional
NARA-personNARA-person

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records.

Default
Wikidata property P1222
Numberdeprecated
NARA-organizationNARA-organization

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records.

Default
Wikidata property P1223
Numberdeprecated
USCongressUSCongress uscongress

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all present and former members of the United States Congress and its predecessor, the Continental Congress. Also included are Delegates from territories and the District of Columbia and Resident Commissioners from the Philippines and Puerto Rico.

Default
Wikidata property P1157
Stringoptional
BNEBNE bne

National Library of Spain (BNE: Biblioteca Nacional de España) is a major public library, the largest in Spain.

Default
Wikidata property P950
Stringoptional
CINIICINII cinii

CiNii is a bibliographic database service for material in Japanese academic libraries. It is maintained by the [[National Institute of Informatics]].

Default
Wikidata property P271
Stringoptional
TLSTLS tls

Theaterlexikon der Schweiz (TLS) is an encyclopedia about theatre in Switzerland. It was developed by the Institute of Theatre Studies of the University of Berne.

Default
Wikidata property P1362
Stringoptional
SIKARTSIKART sikart

SIKART is a biographical dictionary and a database on visual art in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. It is published online by the Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIAR).

Default
Wikidata property P781
Numberoptional
KULTURNAVKULTURNAV kulturnav

KulturNav is a Norwegian cloud-based software service, allowing users to create, manage and distribute name authorities and terminology, focusing on the needs of museums and other cultural heritage institutions. The software is developed by KulturIT ANS and the development project is funded by the [[Arts Council Norway]].

Default
Wikidata property P1248
Stringoptional
RKDartistsRKDartists rkdartists

RKDartists is an online database using a controlled vocabulary currently containing around 200,000+ names and other information about artists

Default
Wikidata property P650
Numberoptional
autores.uyautores.uy

autores.uy is an author's database, that focus on uruguayan authors. It also provides access to digitized works of the authors in public domain.

Default
Wikidata property P2558
Numberoptional
PICPIC pic

Photographers' Identities Catalog (PIC) is a photographer's database. It is maintained by the New York Public Library.

Default
Wikidata property P2750
Numberoptional
ACM-DLACM-DL acm-dl

Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library (ACM DL) author identifier.

Default
Wikidata property P864
Numberoptional
BALaTBALaT balat

Identifier for images in the Photo Library database of BALaT (Belgian Art Links & Tools), maintained by KIK-IRPA, Belgium's Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage.

Default
Wikidata property P3293
Numberoptional
BildindexBildindex bildindex

Picture index of art and architecture.

Default
Wikidata property P2092
Numberoptional
DBLPDBLP dblp

Identifier for person entries in the DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project) computer science bibliography.

Default
Wikidata property P2456
Numberoptional
IAAFIAAF iaaf

Identifier for athletes in International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) database and website.

Default
Wikidata property P1146
Stringoptional
JocondeJoconde joconde

Identifier in the Joconde database of the French Ministry of Culture.

Default
Wikidata property P347
Stringoptional
LNBLNB lnb

Identifier assigned by the National Library of Latvia.

Default
Wikidata property P1368
Numberoptional
NSKNSK nsk

Identifier for an item in the National and University Library in Zagreb (including leading zeroes).

Default
Wikidata property P1375
Numberoptional
RKDIDRKDID rkdid

Identifier per RKDimages of the Netherlands Institute for Art History.

Default
Wikidata property P350
Numberoptional
SNAC-IDSNAC-ID snac-id

Identifier for items in the Social Networks and Archival Context system.

Default
Wikidata property P3430
Stringoptional
NLBNLB ID nlb

Identifier of a person, organisation or place from the name authorities of National Library Board.

Default
Wikidata property P3988
Stringoptional
UKPARLUKPARL urparl

UK Parliament member ID

Default
Wikidata property P6213
Stringoptional
KANTOKANTO ID finaf Asteri

Finnish national agent database ID

Default
Wikidata property P8980
Stringoptional
VcBAVcBA vcba

Vatican Library ID

Default
Wikidata property P8034
Stringoptional
statestate

Initial state of the template

Suggested values
autocollapse expanded collapsed
Default
autocollapse
Unknownsuggested