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FAMEPedia:Today's featured article/August 2021

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August 1

Laurinská Street, Bratislava
Laurinská Street, Bratislava

The Partisan Congress riots were attacks on Jews in Bratislava and other towns in the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia between 1 and 6 August 1946. After World War II, former partisans were often appointed as administrators of property and businesses that had been confiscated from Jews by the previous regime. In May 1946 a law mandating the restitution of these was passed and antisemitic leaflets and attacks on Jews increased. A national congress of former Slovak partisans was held in Bratislava on 2 – 4 August 1946. Rioting began on 1 August, and despite police attempts to maintain order, 10 apartments were broken into, 19 people were injured (4 seriously), and the Jewish community kitchen was ransacked (scene of one attack pictured) over seven days. Attacks and riots occurred in other Slovak towns. The contemporary press played down the involvement of partisans. In response, the government launched a crackdown on antisemitic incitement and suspended restitution to Jews. (Full article...)


August 2

The Sirens and Ulysses is a very large oil painting by the English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1837. It depicts the scene from Homer's Odyssey in which Ulysses (Odysseus) resists the bewitching song of the Sirens by having his ship's crew tie him up, while they are ordered to block their own ears to prevent themselves from hearing the song. Traditionally Sirens had been depicted as human–animal chimeras, but Etty portrayed them as naked young women on an island strewn with decaying corpses. The painting divided opinion, with some critics greatly admiring it while others derided it as tasteless and unpleasant. Following the 1857 Art Treasures Exhibition, it was removed from display for over 150 years. In 2010 the painting went on permanent display in the Manchester Art Gallery. (Full article...)


August 3

Memorial at Moorgate Station
Memorial at Moorgate Station

The Moorgate tube crash occurred on 28 February 1975 on the London Underground's Northern City Line; 43 people died and 74 were injured after a train failed to stop at the line's southern terminus, Moorgate station, and crashed into its end wall. It is the worst peacetime accident on the London Underground. The crash forced the first carriage into the roof of the tunnel; the second carriage collapsed at the front as it collided with the first, and the third rode over the rear of the second. The brakes were not applied and the dead man's handle was still depressed when the train crashed. The inquiry by the Department of the Environment found no fault with the train and concluded that the accident was caused by Leslie Newson, the 56-year-old driver. The post-mortem on Newson showed no medical reason to explain the crash, and a cause has never been established. After the crash, London Underground introduced a safety system that automatically stops a train when it is travelling too fast. (Full article...)


August 4

An X-ray showing a tumor in the lung
An X-ray showing a tumor in the lung

Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. It may metastasise beyond the lungs. Lung cancer is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing, and weight loss. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the degree of spread, and the patient's performance status. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Non-small cell lung carcinoma may be treated with surgery, while small cell lung carcinoma usually responds better to chemotherapy. With treatment, the five-year survival rate is 14%. The most common cause of lung cancer is exposure to tobacco smoke. Genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution may also contribute. (Full article...)


August 5

Obverse of the coin
Obverse

The York County, Maine, Tercentenary half dollar is a 50-cent commemorative coin minted in 1936 to commemorate the tercentenary (300th anniversary) of the founding of York County, the southernmost county in Maine and the first to be organized. The obverse shows Brown's Garrison, the fort around which York County was formed, while the reverse depicts the county's arms. A commemorative coin craze in 1936 saw some coins authorized by the United States Congress that were of mainly local significance; the York County issue was one of these, passing Congress without opposition in the first half of 1936. Maine artist Walter H. Rich designed the issue; his work has garnered mixed praise and dislike from numismatic authors. The Philadelphia Mint struck 25,000 for public sale. Less than 19,000 sold by 1937, more than half to Mainers; the rest were sold in the 1950s. As of 2020, the York County half dollar catalogs for around $200, depending on condition. (Full article...)


August 6

Trey Parker and Matt Stone, creators of South Park
Trey Parker and Matt Stone, creators of South Park

South Park: The Stick of Truth is a 2014 role-playing video game developed by Obsidian Entertainment in collaboration with South Park Digital Studios, and published by Ubisoft for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360. Based on the American adult animated television series South Park, the game features whimsical fantasy role-playing. As the New Kid, the player can freely explore the town of South Park with a supporting party of characters, fighting aliens, Nazi zombies, and gnomes. The visuals replicate the aesthetic of the television series. South Park creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone (both pictured) wrote the game's script, consulted on the design and voiced many of the characters, as in the television program. Reviewers praised the comedic script and authentic visual style, but some faulted the game over technical issues and a lack of challenging combat. A sequel, South Park: The Fractured but Whole, was released in 2017. (Full article...)


August 7

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IV (11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 to 1105. After his father's death in 1056, Henry was placed under his mother's guardianship. Archbishop Anno II of Cologne kidnapped him in 1062 and administered Germany until he came of age in 1065. Ignoring the ideas of the Gregorian Reform, Henry insisted on the royal prerogative to appoint bishops in his German and Italian realms. The Investiture Controversy culminated when Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry in response to Henry's attempt to dethrone him. Henry carried out his penitential Walk to Canossa in 1077 and Gregory absolved him. Henry's German opponents ignored this absolution and elected an anti-king. Most German and northern Italian bishops remained loyal to Henry and elected the antipope, Clement III, who crowned Henry emperor in Rome in 1084. His son, Henry V, forced him to abdicate on 31 December 1105. (Full article...)


August 8

Shoom was a weekly all-nighter dance music event held at nightclubs in London, England, between December 1987 and early 1990. It is widely credited with initiating the acid house movement in the UK. Shoom was founded by Danny Rampling and managed by his wife Jenni. It began at a 300-capacity basement gym on Southwark Street in South London. By May 1988 its growing popularity necessitated a move to the larger Raw venue on Tottenham Court Road, Central London, and a switch from Saturday to Thursday nights. Later relocations were to The Park nightclub in Kensington and Busby's venue on Charing Cross Road. The early nights featured Chicago house and Detroit techno, mixed with contemporary pop and post-punk. Its musical and visual culture evolved around the classical hallucinogenic drug LSD and the psychoactive drug MDMA, the latter commonly known in the UK as ecstasy or "E". Shoom closed shortly after open drug use at the club began to attract police attention. By this time, electronic music had crossed into the mainstream as the heavier sounding rave style became popular, making Shoom appear outdated. (Full article...)


August 9

The 2008 UAW-Dodge 400 was the third stock car race of the 2008 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. It was held on March 2 before a crowd of 153,000 in Las Vegas, Nevada, at Las Vegas Motor Speedway. The 267-lap race was won by Carl Edwards of the Roush Fenway Racing team, for the ninth win of his career. Dale Earnhardt Jr. finished second and Edwards's teammate Greg Biffle came in third. The race was stopped when Jeff Gordon crashed on lap 262, strewing car parts into the path of other drivers; after the restart, Edwards maintained the lead. There were eleven cautions and 19 lead changes by nine different drivers during the race. Ford took over the lead of the Manufacturers' Championship, five points ahead of Dodge. The race attracted 12.1 million television viewers. Edwards was later issued with a 100-point penalty after his car was found to violate NASCAR regulations, dropping him from first to seventh in the Drivers' Championship. (Full article...)


August 10

Hurricane Olivia was a Category 4 hurricane that hit Hawaii as a weakening tropical storm in September 2018, causing severe flooding and wind damage. Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. It was the fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. A tropical depression formed southwest of Mexico on September 1 and strengthened into a tropical storm a day later. Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane on September 7, with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 951 mbar (28.08 Inch of mercury|inHg). On September 12 the storm weakened and made brief landfalls on Maui and Lanai, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). Torrential rainfall occurred on both Maui and Oahu, peaking at 12.93 in (328 mm) in West Wailuaiki, Maui. Olivia felled trees on Maui, and some homes and vehicles were swept away by floodwaters. (Full article...)


August 11

Arthur Sullivan

Arthur Sullivan (1896–1937) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross. Born in South Australia, Sullivan enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force during World War I. Sent to the United Kingdom, the Armistice came into effect before he completed training. Wanting to see active service, he sought his discharge and enlisted in the British Army with the North Russia Relief Force, part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. In the early morning of 11 August 1919 he was a member of a rearguard withdrawing across the Sheika River in North Russia. As his platoon crossed the river on a one-plank bridge, it came under intense fire from Bolshevik troops, and four men fell into the river. Sullivan jumped in and rescued all four, one by one; he was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions. He was part of the Australian Coronation Contingent in London for the coronation of King George VI in 1937 when he died of head injuries received in a fall. (Full article...)


August 12

Star Trek Generations is a 1994 American science fiction film, the seventh in the Star Trek film series. Malcolm McDowell joins cast members from the 1960s television show Star Trek and the 1987 spin-off The Next Generation, including William Shatner and Patrick Stewart. In the film, Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the USS Enterprise-D joins with Captain James T. Kirk to stop the villain Tolian Soran from destroying a planetary system. David Carson directed with photography by franchise newcomer John A. Alonzo. The distributor, Paramount, marketed the film with merchandising tie-ins, including toys, books, games, and the first website to ever promote a major motion picture. The film opened at the top of the United States box office its first week of release and grossed a total of $118 million worldwide. Critical reception was lukewarm, with critics divided on the film's characters and comprehensibility to a casual viewer. (Full article...)


August 13

Battle of Blenheim

The Battle of Blenheim was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession on 13 August 1704. The French were seeking to knock Austria out of the war by seizing its capital, Vienna. A coalition army, led by the Duke of Marlborough, marched south from the Dutch Republic to the Danube. There he defeated the Bavarians at the Battle of Donauwörth and joined an Austrian army under Prince Eugene. A French army under Marshall Tallard bolstered the Elector of Bavaria's forces. The opposing armies met on the banks of the Danube near the village of Blindheim. Marlborough unexpectedly attacked the slightly larger Franco-Bavarian army and after a hard day's fighting inflicted a crushing defeat. France suffered over 30,000 casualties, Tallard was taken prisoner and Bavaria was knocked out of the war. Before the campaign ended, the Allies had taken several important towns and were preparing to invade France in 1705. (Full article...)


August 14

Adult male ring ouzel
Adult male ring ouzel

The ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) is a medium-sized thrush, breeding mainly in Europe. The male is mostly black with a white crescent across its breast, females are browner and duller than the males, and young birds may lack the pale chest markings. This is ahigh-altitude bird, breeding in open mountain areas with some trees or shrubs, often including heather or juniper. It is migratory, wintering in southern Europe, North Africa and Turkey, typically in mountains with juniper. The clutch is three to six brown-flecked pale blue or greenish eggs, incubated by the female, and hatching after 13 days. The downy chicks fledge in another 14 days. The ring ouzel is omnivorous, eating invertebrates, particularly insects and earthworms, some small vertebrates, and a wide range of fruit. Most animal prey is caught on the ground. With an extensive range and a large population, the ring ouzel is evaluated as a least-concern species by the IUCN. There are declines in several countries, perhaps due to climate change or human disturbance.(Full article...)


August 15

View from Crompton Moor
View from Crompton Moor

Shaw and Crompton is a civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Greater Manchester. It contains the town of Shaw, previously known as Crompton, and lies at the edge of the South Pennines, 8.7 miles (14 km) northeast of Manchester. There is evidence of ancient British and Anglian activity in the area, and by the Middle Ages it was a small township, although lacking a lord's manor. Farming was the main industry with some hand-loom woollen weaving until textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution initiated rapid urbanisation. By the late 19th century Crompton had emerged as a densely populated mill town with 48 cotton mills, some very large. Imports of foreign cotton led to a decline in textiles in the mid–20th century and the last mill closed in 1989. The borough is mainly suburban, with a population of 21,065. Six surviving former cotton mill are now home to large distribution companies, among them Shop Direct Group's Shaw National Distribution Centre, a major employer in the area. (Full article...)


August 16

Dimple Kapadia

Dimple Kapadia (born 1957) is an Indian actress of Hindi films. She was discovered at age 14 by Raj Kapoor, who cast her in the title role of Bobby, a major success in 1973. The same year, she married and quit acting until 1984. Both Bobby and her comeback film Saagar (1985) won her Filmfare Awards for Best Actress. She established herself as a leading lady in both mainstream and parallel Hindi cinema and won acclaim for Kaash (1987), Drishti (1990) and Lekin (1991). Her portrayal of a professional mourner in Rudaali (1993) won her a Filmfare Critics Award and the National Film Award for Best Actress; a supporting role in Krantiveer (1994) earned her a fourth Filmfare Award. Less active in later decades, Kapadia played troubled middle-aged women in Dil Chahta Hai (2001) and Leela (2002). She followed with several leading roles, but character parts in films including Luck by Chance (2009), Finding Fanny (2014) and the Hollywood thriller Tenet (2020) brought her more success.(Full article...)


August 17

William de Cantilupe was killed by multiple stab wounds in Scotton, Lincolnshire, in March 1375. The de Cantilupes were a wealthy English family and had a history of service to the crown. They were major landholders in the Midlands, with estates in Greasley, Ilkeston, and Withcall. William de Cantilupe's ancestors included royal councillors and, distantly, Saint Thomas de Cantilupe. Among the suspects in the murder were his wife Maud and the sheriff, Thomas Kydale. Maud may have had an affair with Kydale during her husband's frequent absences on service in France. Fifteen members of the household were also accused. De Cantilupe's murder was the first to come within the purview of the Statute of Treasons Act of 1351, which declared the murder of a husband by his wife or servants to be petty treason. Maud was tried and acquitted. Two members of the household staff were convicted and executed. (Full article...)


August 18

Guria within the Russian Empire
Guria within the Russian Empire

The Gurian Republic was an insurrection and protest movement in the western Georgian region of Guria between 1902 and 1906, against the Russian Empire. It arose from a revolt over land grazing rights; taxation, land ownership and economic factors were also concerns. The Gurian Republic established its own system of government, although it was not anti-Russian, desiring to remain within the Empire. The 1905 Russian Revolution led to uprisings throughout the Empire, including Georgia, and in reaction the imperial authorities deployed the military to end the rebellions. The peasants were able to fend off a small force of Cossacks, but overwhelming military force was used to re-assert control in 1906. Some of the Republic's leaders were executed, imprisoned or exiled, but others later played prominent roles in the 1918–21 Democratic Republic of Georgia. The Republic demonstrated that peasants could participate in the socialist movement, an idea previously downplayed by leading Marxists. (Full article...)


August 19

Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG

Orangutans are great apes native to the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra. Three species in the genus Pongo are recognised. The most arboreal of the great apes, orangutans spend most of their time in trees. They have proportionally long arms and short legs and their hair is reddish-brown. Adult males may develop distinctive cheek pads or flanges and make long calls that attract females and intimidate rivals. Orangutans are generally solitary, apart from mothers and their dependent offspring. The apes eat mainly fruit, but also vegetation, bark, honey, insects and bird eggs. Among the most intelligent primates, orangutans use a variety of sophisticated tools and construct elaborate sleeping nests each night from branches and foliage. Poaching, the illegal pet trade, and habitat destruction for palm oil cultivation have caused severe declines in the populations and ranges of all three species. (Full article...)


August 20

Shuttle-Centaur

Shuttle-Centaur was a version of the Centaur upper stage rocket that could be carried aloft inside the Space Shuttle and used to launch satellites into high Earth orbits or probes into deep space. Two variants were produced: Centaur G-Prime, to launch robotic probes to Jupiter; and Centaur G, for use with US Department of Defense Milstar satellites and the Magellan Venus probe. Its power allowed for heavier deep space probes, prolonging the operational life of the spacecraft. The US Air Force agreed to pay half the cost of Centaur G. The Space Shuttles Challenger and Atlantis were modified to carry the Centaur. After the Challenger accident, NASA concluded it was too risky to fly the Centaur on the Shuttle, just months before its first scheduled flight. The Galileo and Ulysses probes were ultimately launched using the less powerful Inertial Upper Stage. A variant of the Centaur G-Prime was mated with the Titan rocket to produce the Titan IV, which placed 16 military satellites in orbit. (Full article...)


August 21

Foxy Brown
Foxy Brown

"Candy" is a song by American rapper Foxy Brown (pictured) featuring Kelis, released by Def Jam on August 21, 2001, as the third single from her third studio album Broken Silence (2001). A dance-pop and R&B track, it was produced by the Neptunes duo Chad Hugo and Pharrell Williams, who co-wrote the song alongside Brown and Juan Manuel Cordova. Brown raps on the verses while Kelis, a frequent collaborator with the Neptunes, performs the hook. The lyrics are about cunnilingus. "Candy" received a positive response from critics upon release and in retrospective reviews. Music critics compared it to music by other artists, including Lil' Kim, while scholars analyzed its representation of black female sexuality. In the US, the song appeared on Billboard charts, reaching the top ten on the Hot Rap Songs chart. "Candy" appeared on several soundtracks in the early 2000s; it featured in the television series Dark Angel and the films Friday After Next and The 40-Year-Old Virgin. (Full article...)


August 22

Meadow Park, where the match was played
Meadow Park, the match venue, as seen in 2010

Arsenal Women and Bristol City Women played an association football match on 1 December 2019 that ended with a scoreline of 11–1. It was part of the 2019–20 Football Association Women's Super League (FA WSL) and became the highest-scoring game in the league's history. At the time Arsenal were the reigning champions and third in the league; Bristol City were in tenth position. Dutch international striker Vivianne Miedema scored six of the eleven Arsenal goals, a league record, surpassing South Korean Ji So-yun to become the highest-scoring non-British player in FA WSL history. Miedema was also involved in four of the other five Arsenal goals, which were scored by Lisa Evans (twice), Leah Williamson, Jordan Nobbs, and Emma Mitchell. Yana Daniëls scored the only goal for Bristol City. The result put Arsenal top of the league and left Bristol City in eleventh place out of twelve clubs. The return match was never played, as the season was suspended because of the COVID-19 pandemic. (Full article...)


August 23

Edvard August Vainio

Edvard August Vainio (1853–1929) was a Finnish lichenologist. His early works on the lichens of Lapland, his three-volume monograph on the lichen genus Cladonia, and, in particular, his study of the classification and form and structure of lichens in Brazil made Vainio renowned internationally. Vainio's earliest works dealt with phytogeography—elucidating and enumerating flora and its distribution—in the Finnish language. In these publications he demonstrated an attention to detail and thoroughness that became characteristic of his later work. Vainio described about 1700 new taxa, and published more than 100 scientific works. He made significant scientific collections of lichens, and while a herbarium curator at the University of Helsinki and the University of Turku he catalogued and processed other collections from all over the world. He has been called the Father of Brazilian Lichenology and the Grand Old Man of Lichenology. (Full article...)


August 24

A van similar to the one involved in the incident
A van similar to the one involved in the incident

The Chandler's Ford shooting was an attempted robbery on 13 September 2007 in which two men were shot dead by officers of London's Metropolitan Police while robbing a cash-in-transit van. The Met had been tracking a gang who had stolen an estimated £500,000 from security vans and learned that the gang intended to rob the HSBC bank in Chandler's Ford. Armed officers hid nearby early in the morning, with snipers in overlooking buildings. Shortly after the G4S van's arrival, a masked Mark Nunes demanded at gunpoint that the guard hand over the cash box. A police sniper shot Nunes in the chest. A second gangster, Andrew Markland, picked up Nunes's gun and was shot twice by another sniper. Officers gave first aid but both men died. An IPCC investigation concluded that the snipers had acted properly, though it found flaws in the planning. An inquest reached a verdict of lawful killing, after which the IPCC recommended that an independent firearms commander be appointed to lead future operations. (Full article...)


August 25

A Santería shrine in Trinidad, Cuba
A Santería shrine in Trinidad, Cuba

Santería is an African diasporic religion that developed among Afro-Cuban communities during the late 19th century. It arose through the syncretism of the Yoruba religion of West Africa, the Roman Catholic form of Christianity, and Spiritism. Santería is an initiatory tradition with no central authority. It is polytheistic and revolves around deities called oricha. Deriving their names and attributes from traditional Yoruba divinities, they are equated with Roman Catholic saints. Each human is believed to have a personal link to a particular oricha. Practitioners venerate the oricha at altars, where offerings include fruit, liquor, flowers and sacrificed animals. A central ritual involves practitioners drumming, singing, and dancing to encourage an oricha to possess one of their members and thus communicate with them. Healing rituals and the preparation of herbal remedies and talismans also play a prominent role. The number of initiates is estimated to be in the high hundreds of thousands. (Full article...)


August 26

The Battle of Crécy, from Froissart's Chronicles
The Battle of Crécy, from Froissart's Chronicles

The Crécy campaign was an expedition by an English army from the north of Normandy to the County of Boulogne, devastating the French countryside on a wide front, followed by the successful siege of Calais. It began on 12 July 1346 during the the Hundred Years' War. Led by King Edward III, the English stormed and sacked Caen, slaughtering the population. They then devastated the country to the suburbs of Rouen before cutting a swath along the left bank of the Seine to Poissy, 20 miles from Paris. Turning north, the English became trapped in territory which the French had denuded of food. They escaped by fighting their way across the Somme against a French blocking force. Two days later, on ground of their choosing, the English inflicted a heavy defeat on the French at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August, before moving on to besiege Calais. After an eleven-month siege, which stretched both countries' financial and military resources to the limit, the town fell. (Full article...)


August 27

USS Iowa (BB-61)

USS Iowa is a retired battleship, and the lead ship of her class. She is the last lead ship of any class of United States battleships. Iowa served with the Pacific Fleet in 1944, shelling beachheads at Kwajalein and Eniwetok and screening aircraft carriers operating in the Marshall Islands. She also served as the Third Fleet flagship, flying Admiral William F. Halsey's flag at the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. During the Korean War, Iowa was involved in raids on the North Korean coast, after which she was decommissioned. She was reactivated in 1984 and operated in both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets to counter the recently expanded Soviet Navy. In April 1989, an explosion wrecked her No. 2 gun turret, killing 47 sailors. Iowa was decommissioned for the last time in October 1990 after 19 total years of active service. In 2011 she was donated to the Los Angeles–based non-profit Pacific Battleship Center and in 2012 was opened to the public. (Full article...)


August 28

William Lyon Mackenzie

William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Scottish-born Canadian-American journalist and politician. He founded newspapers critical of the Family Compact, represented York County in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and aligned with Reformers. Dundee-born, Mackenzie emigrated to York, Upper Canada (now Toronto), in 1820 and published his first newspaper in 1824. He was elected to the legislative assembly in 1827 and became Toronto's first mayor in 1834. In 1837, he commanded the rebels in the Upper Canada Rebellion, but was defeated at the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern. He fled to the U.S. to rally American support for an invasion of Upper Canada. This violated the Neutrality Act and he was imprisoned. He discovered and published documents that outlined corrupt financial transactions and government appointments by New York state officials. He represented the constituency of Haldimand County in the province's legislature from 1851 to 1858, and died in August 1861. (Full article...)


August 29

Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford

Raiders of the Lost Ark is a 1981 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen Allen, Paul Freeman, Ronald Lacey, John Rhys-Davies, and Denholm Elliott. Ford portrays Indiana Jones, a globe-trotting archaeologist vying with Nazi forces in 1936 to recover the lost Ark of the Covenant, a relic said to make an army invincible. With his former lover Marion Ravenwood (Allen), Jones races to stop rival archaeologist René Belloq (Freeman) from guiding the Nazis to the Ark. photography began in June 1980 and concluded the following September. Filming took place on sets at Elstree Studios, England, and on location in La Rochelle, Tunisia, and Hawaii. It was the highest-grossing film of 1981 and won 5 Oscars, 7 Saturn Awards, and one BAFTA. It is now considered one of the greatest films ever made and has had a lasting impact on popular culture. It led to further Indiana Jones films, games and toys.(Full article...)


August 30

Mary Shelley

Mary Shelley (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was a British novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus. She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her mother was the philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and her father was the political philosopher William Godwin. In 1814, Mary Godwin fell in love with the married Percy Shelley. Together with Mary's stepsister, Claire Clairmont, they travelled through Europe; upon their return to England, Mary was pregnant. She and Percy faced ostracism, constant debt, and the death of their prematurely born daughter. In 1822, her husband died and Mary Shelley then devoted herself to the upbringing of her son and a career as a professional author. The last decade of her life was dogged by illness, probably caused by the brain tumour that was to kill her at the age of 53. (Full article...)


August 31

Skeletal elements of the holotype
Skeletal elements of the holotype

Bajadasaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous epoch, between 145 and 132.9 million years ago, of northern Patagonia, Argentina. It was first described in 2019 based on a single specimen found in 2010 that includes a largely complete skull and parts of the neck. The only species is Bajadasaurus pronuspinax. The genus is classified as a member of the Dicraeosauridae, a group of relatively small and short-necked sauropods. Bajadasaurus sported bifurcated (two-pronged), extremely elongated neural spines extending from the neck; the 2019 description of Bajadasaurus suggested that they could have served as passive defense against predators. The skull was slender and equipped with around 48 teeth that were pencil-shaped and restricted to the front of the jaws. Its eye openings were exposed in top view, possibly allowing the animal to look forwards while feeding. It shared its environment with other dinosaurs including the sauropod Leinkupal and different theropods. (Full article...)