Western African Ebola virus epidemic

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Western African Ebola virus epidemic
2014 ebola virus epidemic in West Africa simplified.svg
Simplified Ebola virus epidemic situation map
DateDecember 2013 – June 2016[1][2]
  • Note: current estimates suggest that between 17 per cent and 70 per cent of Ebola cases were unreported.[3]
Country Cases Deaths Last update
On 9 June 2016 by WHO
Liberia 10,675 4,809Outbreak ended 9 June 2016[2]
Sierra Leone 14,124 3,956Outbreak ended 17 March 2016[4]
Guinea 3,811 2,543Outbreak ended 1 June 2016[5]
Nigeria 20 8Outbreak ended 19 October 2014[6]
Mali 8 6Outbreak ended 18 January 2015[7]
United States 4 1Outbreak ended 21 December 2014[8]
Italy 1 0Outbreak ended 20 July 2015[9]
United Kingdom 1 0Outbreak ended 10 March 2015[10]
Senegal 1 0Outbreak ended 17 October 2014[6]
Spain 1 0Outbreak ended 2 December 2014[11]
Total 28,646 11,323 as of 8 May 2016

The Western African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history, causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The first cases were recorded in Guinea in December 2013; later, the disease spread to neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone,[12] with minor outbreaks occurring elsewhere. It caused significant mortality, with the case fatality rate reported which was initially considerable,[12][13][14][note 1] while the rate among hospitalised patients was 57–59%,[15] the final numbers 28,616 people, including 11,310 deaths, for a case-fatality rate of 40%.[16] Small outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Mali,[17][18] and secondary infections of medical workers occurred in the United States and Spain.[19][20] In addition, isolated cases were recorded in Senegal,[21] the United Kingdom and Italy.[14][22] The number of cases peaked in October 2014 and then began to decline gradually, following the commitment of substantial international resources. As of 8 May 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) and respective governments reported a total of 28,646 suspected cases and 11,323 deaths[23] (39.5%), though the WHO believes that this substantially understates the magnitude of the outbreak.[24][25]

On 8 August 2014, a Public Health Emergency of International Concern was declared[26] and on 29 March 2016, the WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the outbreak.[27][28][29] Subsequent flare-ups occurred; the epidemic was finally declared over on 9 June 2016, 42 days after the last case tested negative on 28 April 2016 in Monrovia.[30]

The outbreak left about 17,000 survivors of the disease, many of whom report post-recovery symptoms termed post-Ebola syndrome, often severe enough to require medical care for months or even years. An additional cause for concern is the apparent ability of the virus to "hide" in a recovered survivor's body for an extended period of time and then become active months or years later, either in the same individual or in a sexual partner.[31] In December 2016, the WHO announced that a two-year trial of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine appeared to offer protection from the variant of EBOV responsible for the Western Africa outbreak. The vaccine is considered to be effective and is the only prophylactic which offers protection; hence, 300,000 doses have been stockpiled.[32][33] rVSV-ZEBOV received regulatory approval in 2019.[34][35] Template:Source Wikipedia

  1. "WHO Director-General addresses the Executive Board". Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Brice, Makini (9 June 2016). "WHO declares Liberia free of active Ebola virus transmission". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  3. Donald G. McNeil Jr. (16 December 2015). "Fewer Ebola cases go unreported than thought, study finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  4. "Ebola Situation Report – 16 March 2016 | Ebola". World Health Organization. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  5. "End of Ebola transmission in Guinea". WHO Regional Office for Africa. 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WHO20141022
  7. "Ebola situation report" (PDF). World Health Organization. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  8. "Ebola response roadmap – Situation report 24 December 2014". World Health Organization. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  9. "Ebola situation report". World Health Organization. 22 July 2015.
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Uk_10_March
  11. "Situation summary". World Health Organization. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  12. 12.0 12.1 WHO Ebola Response Team (23 September 2014). "Ebola virus disease in West Africa – the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (16): 1481–1495. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411100. PMC 4235004. PMID 25244186. ... we estimate that the case fatality rate is 70.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69 to 73) among persons with known clinical outcome of infection.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Case Fatality Rate for ebolavirus". University of Edinburgh. 2015. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ebola response roadmap situation report (PDF) (Report). WHO. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2015. The reported case fatality rate in the three intense-transmission countries among all cases for whom a definitive outcome is known is 71%.
  15. Ebola Situation report (Report). WHO. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  16. Wappes, Jim. "US health worker monitored as DRC Ebola nears 600 cases". CIDRAP. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  17. End of Ebola transmission in Guinea (Report). WHO Regional Office for Africa. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  18. "Update: Mali confirms new case of Ebola, locks down Bamako clinic". Reuters. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  19. "Una enfermera que atendió al misionero fallecido García Viejo, contagiada de ébola". El Mundo (in Spanish). 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  20. Ebola outbreak situation report (PDF) (Report). WHO. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  21. Ebola response roadmap situation report update (PDF) (Report). WHO. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  22. "Ebola virus disease – Italy". WHO. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  23. Ebola virus disease (Report). World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  24. Meltzer, Martin I.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Santibanez, Scott; et al. (26 September 2014). "Estimating the future number of cases in the Ebola epidemic – Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63 (3): 1–14. PMID 25254986.
  25. Worl, Justin (2014). "New Ebola Cases Could Hit 10,000 Per Week". Time. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  26. Statement on the 1st meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa (Report). WHO. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  27. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EmergencyEnd
  28. Interim advice on the sexual transmission of the Ebola virus disease (Report). WHO. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  29. WHO Director-General addresses the Executive Board (Report). WHO. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  30. WHO (10 June 2016). Situation Report Ebola (PDF) (Report). WHO. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  31. Yasmin, Seema (29 February 2016). "Why Ebola Survivors Struggle with New Symptoms". Scientific American. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  32. Geisbert, Thomas W. (December 2016). "First Ebola virus vaccine to protect human beings?". The Lancet. 389 (10068): 479–480. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32618-6. PMID 28017402.
  33. "Ebola vaccine results are encouraging – but preliminary". PBS. 23 December 2016.
  34. "Ervebo". EMA. 12 December 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  35. "First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus disease, marking a critical milestone in public health preparedness and response". FDA. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2020.

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